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雅思阅读逻辑关系之因果关系


时间: 2018-04-23 16:29:14来源: 作者: jinanmingbang 点击:

  本期小编将会为大家介绍雅思阅读中六种逻辑关系,分别是因果关系,并列关系,转折关系,比较关系,举例关系,以及否定与双重否定关系。

 

  阅读中,如果在解题时找出题干和文章中的逻辑连接词有助于帮助我们理解作者的写作逻辑从而帮助我们解题。本篇文章中,巧微老师会带大家分析阅读文章中如何分析利用因果关系词,同时,掌握这些词对大家的写作也有好处。

  首先大家先掌握表示因果的关系词。

  1.表示因果的连词有:because,since,as,for,in that,given that,so,therefore,thereby,thus,hence,as a result

  2. 表示因果的动词:result from,be attributable to,result in,cause,lead to,contribute to

  3. 表示因果的介词:because of,due to,owe to,thanks to

  4. 表示因果的副词:consequently,accordingly,why

  其次,让我们来看如何利用因果关系词来解题。

  Example: C7 TEXT 1 READING PASSAGE 1

  Question 10-13

  Complete the sentences below.

  Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer.

  Write your answers in boxes 10-13 0n your answer sheet.

  10. Long before the invention of radar................... had resulted in a sophisticated radar-like system in bats.

  11. Radar is an inaccurate term when referring to bats because...................are not used in their navigation system.

  这个完成句子题出自剑7test1的passage1,位于文章的第三道大题,根据前两道题的题目特点,可以推断出这道题大定位对应文章最后一段。我们先看第十题。首先,我们先读题干,了解题干的主要内容是说,在雷达发明很久之前,……在蝙蝠身上导致了一个复杂精致的像雷达一样的系统。其次,我们画出关键词,主要找出名词,像rada-like和system。但是大家要特别注意空后出现了表示因果的动词-result in中文意思为导致.....。接下来,我们判断出来这个空需要填一个名词去做主语。最后,利用关键词在文章中找到出题句。 The Sonar and Radar pioneers didn't know it then, but all the world now knows that bats, or rather natural selection working on bats, had perfected the system tens of millions of years earlier: and their radar' achieves feats of detection and navigation that would strike an engineer dumb with admiration.从出题句可以看出,natural selection作为句子的主语,在蝙蝠身上起作用,使系统完美。其中,natural selection与system形成了因果关系,所以答案是natural selection。这道题就是利用因果关系找到了答案。

  接下来我们看第十一题。我们先读题干,题干的意思是说,当涉及蝙蝠的时候,雷达是一个不精确的术语,因为.....在他们的导航系统中没有被应用。其次,我们画出关键词像navigation system。这里大家需要注意因果连词because。接下来判断词性,我们需要填的是做主语的复数名词。最后,利用关键词在文章中找到出题句,即:It is technically incorrect to talk about bat 'radar', since they do not use radio waves.在出题句中我们找到了表示原因的连词since,所以答案要在原因状语从句中找,即名词radio waves. 只不过原文和题干有一个主动语态和被动语态的转换。

  在配对题中,因果关系也得到了充分的应用。

  Example: C7 TEXT 1 READING PASSAGE 1

  Question 1-5

  Reading Passage I has five paragraphs, A-E.

  Which paragraph contains the following information?

  Write the correct letter, A-E, in boxes 1-5 on your answer sheet.

  NB You may use any letter more than once.

  1. examples of wildlife other than bats which do not rely on vision to navigate by

  2. how early mammals avoided dying out

  3. why bats hunt in the dark

  4. how a particular discovery has helped our understanding of bats

  5. early military uses of echolocation

  我们看第三题。首先,先翻译出题干的意思,题干翻译为:为什么蝙蝠在黑暗中狩猎。我们尤其需要注意题干中的关系副词-why,因为在段落中会给出具体的原因,所以会出现表示原因的关系词。由此可以判断出,本题对应的是A段。

  Bats have a problem: how to find their way around in the dark. They hunt at night, and cannot use light to help them find prey and avoid obstacles. You might say that this is a problem of their own making, one that they could avoid simply by changing their habits and hunting by day. But the daytime economy is already heavily exploited by other creatures such as birds. Given that there is a living to be made at night, and given that alternative daytime trades are thoroughly occupied, natural selection has favored bats that make a go of the night-hunting trade. It is probable that the nocturnal trades go way back in the ancestry of all mammals. In the time when the dinosaurs dominated the daytime economy our mammalian ancestors probably only managed to survive at all because they found ways of scraping a living at night. Only after the mysterious mass extinction of the dinosaurs about 65 million years ago were our ancestors able to emerge into the daylight in any substantial numbers.

  第一段提及了hunt at night,并且出现了表示原因的连词given that。
 
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