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托福阅读错误选项的命题规律之 ——细节放大


时间: 2015-10-23 16:25:00来源: 环球教育 作者: jinanmingbang 点击:

 
  托福阅读考试中,考生在有限的时间内对错误选项的识别能力会直接决定考生的分数段位,具备快速识别错误选项能力的考生,阅读一般在26+,反之,常在18-23之间徘徊。上文中,笔者给大家着重分析了利用错误指代设置错误选项的命题规律,本文,笔者将对另外一类错误选项的命题规律进行分析,这就是细节放大。
  所谓细节放大,是命题者对原文不重要的次要信息(minor idea)进行了过度拔高,使其上升为主要信息(main idea),并将其设置成为错误选项的出题方式。此种错误选项具有极高的迷惑性,尤其是在核对类(细节类)题目中最容易误导考生。究其原因,是由于考生在做阅读类题目的过程中,往往把在原文出现过当成是答案依据,这给ETS的命题者提供了无限的空间以此设置错误选项,可谓屡试不爽。阅读能力较弱的考生最常见的答题习惯就是在原文中找到题干或者选项中的单词,进行含糊的对照,以此认定为原文出处。问题恰恰在于,不是原文中出现的就是对的,原文当中许多信息并不是主要信息,可能是琐碎的例子、填充性的细节,而这些,都无法作为文章主题的核心表达,选择这些选项往往是掉进了一个名为本末倒置的错误陷阱中。这必须引起考生的高度重视。
  限于文字,笔者在本文中将以句子简化题(Sentence Simplification)为例,为考生分析细节放大的错误选项设置规律。从句子简化题入手分析细节放大这一错误选项规律,是因为其典型性。在句子简化题的Directions中,明确指出正确答案是对原文的核心信息(essential information)进行有效保留的选项。毫无疑问,核心信息就不会是琐碎的细节,所以,在此种题型中,将次要信息上升成为主要信息的选项是最常见的错误类型,也是考生首先需要学会辨识的错误选项。
  Eg1. Continued sedimentation—the process of deposits' settling on the sea bottom—buries the organic matter and subjects it to higher temperatures and pressures, which convert the organic matter to oil and gas.
  A. Higher temperatures and pressures promote sedimentation, which is responsible for petroleum formation.
  B. Deposits of sediments on top of organic matter increase the temperature of and pressure on the matter.
  C. Increase pressure and heat from the weight of the sediment turn the organic remains into petroleum.
  D.The remains of microscopic organisms transform into petroleum once they are buried under mud.
  此题来自于TPO4-Petroleum Resources,大家读完原句就会发现the process of deposits' settling on the sea bottom这一部分置于两个破折号之间,众所周知,破折号起到了解释说明的作用,是同位解释前文,属于典型的次要信息。在四个选项中,几乎没有选项对其进行表述,唯有B选项有对其deposits的保留,而原文中的重要信息是句子的后半部分,即convert the organic matter to oil and gas这一部分,B选项毫无涉及,必错无疑。convert为目的动作,最后转化为石油才是essential information。所以,正确答案为C选项。D选项虽然进行了同义词替换(transform into),但是有多余逻辑词once的出现,改变句意,故不选。
  再看一例,
  Eg2. For example, people who believe that aggression is necessary and justified—as during wartime—are likely to act aggressively, whereas people who believe that a particular war or act of aggression is unjust, or who think that aggression is never justified, are less likely to behave aggressively.
  A.People who believe that they are fighting a just war act aggressively while those who believe that they are fighting an unjust war do not.
  B.People who believe that aggression is necessary and justified are more likely to act aggressively than those who believe differently.
  C.People who normally do not believe that aggression is necessary and justified may act aggressively during wartime.
  D.People who believe that aggression is necessary and justified do not necessarily act aggressively during wartime.
  本题出自Aggression这篇文章,如同例1,此题中也有一处破折号表示解释说明的成份as during wartime。而在错误选项中,C和D同时都保留了这一无关紧要的细节信息,在有限的字数内依然没有保留核心信息,故均不会入选。此题中,至关重要的强调点在比较上,即对两类人的比较,正确答案B选项对more进行了替换,变为less,并把比较对象同时置换,保留原句的正确表达,并把第二类人进行了极致的省减,可谓正确答案的范本。
  如果说前两题都是通过破折号这一极具标识性的符号进行了细节信息的表达,那么下一题则是另外一种方式。
  Eg3. In addition to finding an increase of suitable browse, like huckleberry and vine maple, Arthur Einarsen, longtime game biologist in the Pacific Northwest, found quality of browse in the open areas to be substantially more nutritive.
  A.Arthur Einarsen’s longtime family with the Pacific Northwest helped him discover areas where deer had an increase in suitable browse.
  B.Arthur Einarsen found that deforested feeding grounds provided deer with more and better food.
  C.Biologist like Einarsen believe it is important to find additional open areas with suitable browse for deer to inhabit.
  D.According to Einarsen, huckleberry and vine maple are examples of vegetation that may someday improve the nutrition of deer in the open areas of the Pacific Northwest.
  此题出自经典文章Deer Populations of the Puget Sound ,和前两题不一样的是,此句待简化的题目没有出现破折号,取而代之的细节表达是插入语成份。顾名思义,插入语在句子中通常不是main structure,在简化的过程中,通常也将其视为次要信息的补充表达。在本题中,就有两个部分均属于这个范畴,即like huckleberry and vine maple和longtime game biologist in the Pacific Northwest,前者是对browse的例子填充,后者是对Arthur的身份说明,两者都不应该上升为主要信息并成为备选答案的成份。而在A,C,D中均有对这两部分的冗长表达,甚至还有错误挪用,正确答案B选项则对原文这两部分进行了省略并对强调点more nutritive进行了同义改写more and better food。
  从以上三个题目,大家可以看到,不管原句的细节信息是以怎样的形式展现出来,包含琐碎信息的选项往往不会是我们优先的备选方案,也就是说,次要信息不能喧宾夺主,成为主要信息,作为essential information的体现。考生须谨记。 
 
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